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2018考研英语一真题及谜底(完备版)

来源:万学海文 光阴>2019-05-25 10:18:19

  2018考研英语一真题及谜底(完备版),供大家参考:

  2018考研英语一真题:

  Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Trust is a tricky business. On the one hand, it's a necessary condition 1 many worthwhile things: child care, friendships, etc. On the other hand, putting your 2, in the wrong place often carries a high 3.

  4, why do we trust at all? Well, because it feels good. 5 people place their trust in an individual or an institution, their brains release oxytocin, a hormone that 6 pleasurable feelings and triggers the herding instruct that prompts humans to 7 with one another. Scientists have found that exposure 8 this hormone puts us in a trusting 9: In a Swiss study, researchers sprayed oxytocin into the noses of half the subjects; those subjects were ready to lend significantly higher amounts of money to strangers than were their 10 who inhaled something else.

  11 for us, we also have a sixth sense for dishonesty that may 12 us. A Canadian study found that children as young as 14 months can differentiate 13 a credible person and a dishonest one. Sixty toddlers were each 14 to an adult tester holding a plastic container. The tester would ask, “What’s in here?” before looking into the container, smiling, and exclaiming, “Wow!” Each subject was then invited to look 15. Half of them found a toy; the other half 16 the container was empty-and realized the tester had 17 them.

  Among the children who had not been tricked, the majority were 18 to cooperate with the tester in learning a new skill, demonstrating that they trusted his leadership. 19, only five of the 30 children paired with the “20”tester participated in a follow-up activity.

  1. [A] on [B] like [C] for [D] from

  2. [A] faith [B] concern [C] attention [D] interest

  3. [A] benefit [B] debt [C] hope [D] price

  4. [A] Therefore [B] Then [C] Instead [D] Again

  5. [A]Until [B] Unless [C] Although [D] When

  6. [A] selects [B] produces [C] applies [D] maintains

  7. [A] consult [B] compete [C] connect [D] compare

  8. [A] at [B] by [C]of [D]to

  9. [A] context [B] mood [C] period [D] circle

  10.[A] counterparts [B] substitutes [C] colleagues [D]supporters

  11.[A] Funny [B] Lucky [C] Odd [D] Ironic

  12.[A] monitor [B] protect [C] surprise [D] delight

  13.[A] between [B] within [C] toward [D] over

  14.[A] transferred [B] added [C] introduced [D] entrusted

  15.[A] out [B] back [C] around [D] inside

  16.[A] discovered [B] proved [C] insisted [D] .remembered

  17.[A] betrayed [B]wronged [C] fooled [D] mocked

  18.[A] forced [B] willing [C] hesitant [D] entitled

  19.[A] In contrast [B] As a result [C] On the whole [D] For instance

  20.[A] inflexible [B] incapable [C] unreliable [D] unsuitable

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

  Text 1

  Among the annoying challenges facing the middle class is one that will probably go unmentioned in the next presidential campaign: What happens when the robots come for their jobs?

  Don't dismiss that possibility entirely. About half of U.S. jobs are at high risk of being automated, according to a University of Oxford study, with the middle class disproportionately squeezed. Lower-income jobs like gardening or day care don't appeal to robots. But many middle-class occupations-trucking, financial advice, software engineering — have aroused their interest, or soon will. The rich own the robots, so they will be fine.

  This isn't to be alarmist. Optimists point out that technological upheaval has benefited workers in the past. The Industrial Revolution didn't go so well for Luddites whose jobs were displaced by mechanized looms, but it eventually raised living standards and created more jobs than it destroyed. Likewise, automation should eventually boost productivity, stimulate demand by driving down prices, and free workers from hard, boring work. But in the medium term, middle-class workers may need a lot of help adjusting.

  The first step, as Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee argue in The Second Machine Age, should be rethinking education and job training. Curriculums —from grammar school to college- should evolve to focus less on memorizing facts and more on creativity and complex communication. Vocational schools should do a better job of fostering problem-solving skills and helping students work alongside robots. Online education can supplement the traditional kind. It could make extra training and instruction affordable. Professionals trying to acquire new skills will be able to do so without going into debt.

  The challenge of coping with automation underlines the need for the U.S. to revive its fading business dynamism: Starting new companies must be made easier. In previous eras of drastic technological change, entrepreneurs smoothed the transition by dreaming up ways to combine labor and machines. The best uses of 3D printers and virtual reality haven't been invented yet. The U.S. needs the new companies that will invent them.

  Finally, because automation threatens to widen the gap between capital income and labor income, taxes and the safety net will have to be rethought. Taxes on low-wage labor need to be cut, and wage subsidies such as the earned income tax credit should be expanded: This would boost incomes, encourage work, reward companies for job creation, and reduce inequality.

  Technology will improve society in ways big and small over the next few years, yet this will be little comfort to those who find their lives and careers upended by automation. Destroying the machines that are coming for our jobs would be nuts. But policies to help workers adapt will be indispensable.

  21.Who will be most threatened by automation?

  [A] Leading politicians.

  [B]Low-wage laborers.

  [C]Robot owners.

  [D]Middle-class workers.

  22 .Which of the following best represent the author’s view?

  [A] Worries about automation are in fact groundless.

  [B]Optimists' opinions on new tech find little support.

  [C]Issues arising from automation need to be tackled

  [D]Negative consequences of new tech can be avoided

  23.Education in the age of automation should put more emphasis on

  [A] creative potential.

  [B]job-hunting skills.

  [C]individual needs.

  [D]cooperative spirit.

  24.The author suggests that tax policies be aimed at

  [A] encouraging the development of automation.

  [B]increasing the return on capital investment.

  [C]easing the hostility between rich and poor.

  [D]preventing the income gap from widening.

  25.In this text, the author presents a problem with

  [A] opposing views on it.

  [B]possible solutions to it.

  [C]its alarming impacts.

  [D]its major variations.

  Text 2

  A new survey by Harvard University finds more than two-thirds of young Americans disapprove of President Trump’s use of Twitter. The implication is that Millennials prefer news from the White House to be filtered through other source, Not a president’s social media platform.

  Most Americans rely on social media to check daily headlines. Yet as distrust has risen toward all media, people may be starting to beef up their media literacy skills. Such a trend is badly needed. During the 2016 presidential campaign, nearly a quarter of web content shared by Twitter users in the politically critical state of Michigan was fake news, according to the University of Oxford. And a survey conducted for BuzzFeed News found 44 percent of Facebook users rarely or never trust news from the media giant.

  Young people who are digital natives are indeed becoming more skillful at separating fact from fiction in cyberspace. A Knight Foundation focus-group survey of young people between ages 14and24 found they use “distributed trust” to verify stories. They cross-check sources and prefer news from different perspectives—especially those that are open about any bias. “Many young people assume a great deal of personal responsibility for educating themselves and actively seeking out opposing viewpoints,” the survey concluded.

  Such active research can have another effect. A 2014 survey conducted in Australia, Britain, and the United States by the University of Wisconsin-Madison found that young people’s reliance on social media led to greater political engagement.

  Social media allows users to experience news events more intimately and immediately while also permitting them to re-share news as a projection of their values and interests. This forces users to be more conscious of their role in passing along information. A survey by Barna research group found the top reason given by Americans for the fake news phenomenon is “reader error,” more so than made-up stories or factual mistakes in reporting. About a third say the problem of fake news lies in “misinterpretation or exaggeration of actual news” via social media. In other words, the choice to share news on social media may be the heart of the issue. “This indicates there is a real personal responsibility in counteracting this problem,” says Roxanne Stone, editor in chief at Barna Group.

  So when young people are critical of an over-tweeting president, they reveal a mental discipline in thinking skills – and in their choices on when to share on social media.

  26. According to the Paragraphs 1 and 2, many young Americans cast doubts on

  [A] the justification of the news-filtering practice.

  [B] people’s preference for social media platforms.

  [C] the administrations ability to handle information.

  [D] social media was a reliable source of news.

  27. The phrase “beer up”(Line 2, Para. 2) is closest in meaning to

  [A] sharpen

  [B] define

  [C] boast

  [D] share

  28. According to the knight foundation survey, young people

  [A] tend to voice their opinions in cyberspace.

  [B] verify news by referring to diverse resources.

  [C] have s strong sense of responsibility.

  [D] like to exchange views on “distributed trust”

  29. The Barna survey found that a main cause for the fake news problem is

  [A] readers outdated values.

  [B] journalists’ biased reporting

  [C] readers’ misinterpretation

  [D] journalists’ made-up stories.

  30. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

  [A] A Rise in Critical Skills for Sharing News Online

  [B] A Counteraction Against the Over-tweeting Trend

  [C] The Accumulation of Mutual Trust on Social Media.

  [D] The Platforms for Projection of Personal Interests.

  Text 3

  Any fair-minded assessment of the dangers of the deal between Britain's National Health Service (NHS) and DeepMind must start by acknowledging that both sides mean well. DeepMind is one of the leading artificial intelligence (AI) companies in the world. The potential of this work applied to healthcare is very great, but it could also lead to further concentration of power in the tech giants. It Is against that background that the information commissioner, Elizabeth Denham, has issued her damning verdict against the Royal Free hospital trust under the NHS, which handed over to DeepMind the records of 1.6 million patients In 2015 on the basis of a vague agreement which took far too little account of the patients' rights and their expectations of privacy.

  DeepMind has almost apologized. The NHS trust has mended its ways. Further arrangements- and there may be many-between the NHS and DeepMind will be carefully scrutinised to ensure that all necessary permissions have been asked of patients and all unnecessary data has been cleaned. There are lessons about informed patient consent to learn. But privacy is not the only angle in this case and not even the most important. Ms Denham chose to concentrate the blame on the NHS trust, since under existing law it “controlled” the data and DeepMind merely “processed" it. But this distinction misses the point that it is processing and aggregation, not the mere possession of bits, that gives the data value.

  The great question is who should benefit from the analysis of all the data that our lives now generate. Privacy law builds on the concept of damage to an individual from identifiable knowledge about them. That misses the way the surveillance economy works. The data of an individual there gains its value only when it is compared with the data of countless millions more.

  The use of privacy law to curb the tech giants in this instance feels slightly maladapted. This practice does not address the real worry. It is not enough to say that the algorithms DeepMind develops will benefit patients and save lives. What matters is that they will belong to a private monopoly which developed them using public resources. If software promises to save lives on the scale that dugs now can, big data may be expected to behave as a big pharm has done. We are still at the beginning of this revolution and small choices now may turn out to have gigantic consequences later. A long struggle will be needed to avoid a future of digital feudalism. Ms Denham's report is a welcome start.

  31.Wha is true of the agreement between the NHS and DeepMind ?

  [A] It caused conflicts among tech giants.

  [B] It failed to pay due attention to patient’s rights.

  [C] It fell short of the latter's expectations

  [D] It put both sides into a dangerous situation.

  32. The NHS trust responded to Denham's verdict with

  [A] empty promises.

  [B] tough resistance.

  [C] necessary adjustments.

  [D] sincere apologies.

  33.The author argues in Paragraph 2 that

  [A] privacy protection must be secured at all costs.

  [B] leaking patients' data is worse than selling it.

  [C] making profits from patients' data is illegal.

  [D] the value of data comes from the processing of it

  34.According to the last paragraph, the real worry arising from this deal is

  [A] the vicious rivalry among big pharmas.

  [B] the ineffective enforcement of privacy law.

  [C] the uncontrolled use of new software.

  [D] the monopoly of big data by tech giants.

  35.The author's attitude toward the application of AI to healthcare is

  [A] ambiguous.

  [B] cautious.

  [C] appreciative.

  [D] contemptuous.

  Text 4

  The U.S. Postal Service (USPS) continues to bleed red ink. It reported a net loss of $5.6 billion for fiscal 2016, the 10th straight year its expenses have exceeded revenue. Meanwhile, it has more than $120 billion in unfunded liabilities, mostly for employee health and retirement costs. There are many bankruptcies. Fundamentally, the USPS is in a historic squeeze between technological change that has permanently decreased demand for its bread-and-butter product, first-class mail, and a regulatory structure that denies management the flexibility to adjust its operations to the new reality

  And interest groups ranging from postal unions to greeting-card makers exert self-interested pressure on the USPS’s ultimate overseer-Congress-insisting that whatever else happens to the Postal Service, aspects of the status quo they depend on get protected. This is why repeated attempts at reform legislation have failed in recent years, leaving the Postal Service unable to pay its bills except by deferring vital modernization.

  Now comes word that everyone involved---Democrats, Republicans, the Postal Service, the unions and the system's heaviest users—has finally agreed on a plan to fix the system. Legislation is moving through the House that would save USPS an estimated $28.6 billion over five years, which could help pay for new vehicles, among other survival measures. Most of the money would come from a penny-per-letter permanent rate increase and from shifting postal retirees into Medicare. The latter step would largely offset the financial burden of annually pre-funding retiree health care, thus addressing a long-standing complaint by the USPS and its union.

  If it clears the House, this measure would still have to get through the Senate – where someone is bound to point out that it amounts to the bare, bare minimum necessary to keep the Postal Service afloat, not comprehensive reform. There’s no change to collective bargaining at the USPS, a major omission considering that personnel accounts for 80 percent of the agency’s costs. Also missing is any discussion of eliminating Saturday letter delivery. That common-sense change enjoys wide public support and would save the USPS $2 billion per year. But postal special-interest groups seem to have killed it, at least in the House. The emerging consensus around the bill is a sign that legislators are getting frightened about a politically embarrassing short-term collapse at the USPS. It is not, however, a sign that they’re getting serious about transforming the postal system for the 21st century.

  36.The financial problem with the USPS is caused partly by

  [A]. its unbalanced budget.

  [B] .its rigid management.

  [C] .the cost for technical upgrading.

  [D]. the withdrawal of bank support.

  37. According to Paragraph 2, the USPS fails to modernize itself due to

  [A]. the interference from interest groups.

  [B] .the inadequate funding from Congress.

  [C] .the shrinking demand for postal service.

  [D] .the incompetence of postal unions.

  38.The long-standing complaint by the USPS and its unions can be addressed by

  [A] .removing its burden of retiree health care.

  [B] .making more investment in new vehicles.

  [C] .adopting a new rate-increase mechanism.

  [D]. attracting more first-class mail users.

  39.In the last paragraph, the author seems to view legislators with

  [A] respect.

  [B] tolerance.

  [C] discontent.

  [D] gratitude.

  40.Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

  [A] .The USPS Starts to Miss Its Good Old Days

  [B] .The Postal Service: Keep Away from My Cheese

  [C] .The USPS: Chronic Illness Requires a Quick Cure

  [D] .The Postal Service Needs More than a Band-Aid

  Part B

  Directions:

  The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions>2019-05-25, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs C and F have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  A. In December of 1869, Congress appointed a commission to select a site and prepare plans and cost estimates for a new State Department Building. The commission was also to consider possible arrangements for the War and Navy Departments. To the horror of some who expected a Greek Revival twin of the Treasury Building to be erected on the other side of the White House, the elaborate French Second Empire style design by Alfred Mullett was selected, and construction of a building to house all three departments began in June of 1871.

  B. Completed in 1875, the State Department's south wing was the first to be occupied, with its elegant four-story library (completed in 1876), Diplomatic Reception Room, and Secretary's office decorated with carved wood, Oriental rugs, and stenciled wall patterns. The Navy Department moved into the east wing in 1879, where elaborate wall and ceiling stenciling and marquetry floors decorated the office of the Secretary.

  C. The State, War, and Navy Building, as it was originally known, housed the three Executive Branch Departments most intimately associated with formulating and conducting the nation's foreign policy in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the first quarter of the twentieth century-the period when the United States emerged as an international power. The building has housed some of the nation's most significant diplomats and politicians and has been the scene of many historic events.

  D. Many of the most celebrated national figures have participated in historical events that have taken place within the EEOB's granite walls. Theodore and Franklin D. Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Lyndon B. Johnson, Gerald Ford, and George H. W. Bush all had offices in this building before becoming president. It has housed 16 Secretaries of the Navy, 21 Secretaries of War, and 24 Secretaries of State. Winston Churchill once walked its corridors and Japanese emissaries met here with Secretary of State Cordell Hull after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.

  E. The Eisenhower Executive Office Building (EEOB) commands a unique position in both the national history and the architectural heritage of the United States. Designed by Supervising Architect of the Treasury, Alfred B. Mullett, it was built from 1871 to 1888 to house the growing staffs of the State, War, and Navy Departments, and is considered one of the best examples of French Second Empire architecture in the country.

  F. Construction took 17 years as the building slowly rose wing by wing. When the EEOB was finished, it was the largest office building in Washington, with nearly 2 miles of black and white tiled corridors. Almost all of the interior detail is of cast iron or plaster; the use of wood was minimized to insure fire safety. Eight monumental curving staircases of granite with over 4,000 individually cast bronze balusters are capped by four skylight domes and two stained glass rotundas.

  G. The history of the EEOB began long before its foundations were laid. The first executive offices were constructed between 1799 and 1820. A series of fires (including those set by the British in 1814) and overcrowded conditions led to the construction of the existing Treasury Building. In 1866, the construction of the North Wing of the Treasury Building necessitated the demolition of the State Department building.

  41. à Cà42. à 43. à F à 44 à 45.

  Part C

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Shakespeare’s life time was coincident with a period of extraordinary activity and achievement in the drama. By the date of his birth Europe was witnessing the passing of the religious drama, and the creation of new forms under the incentive of classical tragedy and comedy. These new forms were at first mainly written by scholars and performed by amateurs, but in England, as everywhere else in western Europe, the growth of a class of professional actors was threatening to make the drama popular, whether it should be new or old, classical or medieval, literary or farcical. Court, school organizations of amateurs, and the traveling actors were all rivals in supplying a widespread desire for dramatic entertainment; and (47) no boy who went a grammar school could be ignorant that the drama was a form of literature which gave glory to Greece and Rome and might yet bring honor to England.

  When Shakespeare was twelve years old, the first public playhouse was built in London. For a time literature showed no interest in this public stage. Plays aiming at literary distinction were written for school or court, or for the choir boys of St. Paul’s and the royal chapel, who, however, gave plays in public as well as at court.(48)but the professional companies prospered in their permanent theaters, and university men with literature ambitions were quick to turn to these theaters as offering a means of livelihood. By the time Shakespeare was twenty-five, Lyly, Peele, and Greene had made comedies that were at once popular and literary; Kyd had written a tragedy that crowded the pit; and Marlowe had brought poetry and genius to triumph on the common stage - where they had played no part since the death of Euripides. (49)A native literary drama had been created, its alliance with the public playhouses established, and at least some of its great traditions had been begun.

  The development of the Elizabethan drama for the next twenty-five years is of exceptional interest to students of literary history, for in this brief period we may trace the beginning, growth, blossoming, and decay of many kinds of plays, and of many great careers. We are amazed today at the mere number of plays produced, as well as by the number of dramatists writing at the same time for this London of two hundred thousand inhabitants. (50)To realize how great was the dramatic activity, we must remember further that hosts of plays have been lost, and that probably there is no author of note whose entire work has survived.

  Section III Writing

  Part A

  51. Directions:

  Write an email to all international experts on campus inviting them to attend the graduation ceremony. In your email you should include time, place and other relevant information about the ceremony.

  You should write about 100 words neatly on the ANSEWER SHEET

  Do not use your own name at the end of the email. Use “Li Ming” instead. (10 points)

  Part B

  52. Directions:

  Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the picture below. In your essay, you should

  2018考研英语一真题谜底详解

  注意:英语试卷为花卷,以谜底内容停止核对

  Section I Use of English

  1、【谜底】[B] for

  【解析】此处稽核介词的用法。it’s a necessary condition ____ many worthwhile things (相信是一个必要条件_____很多重要工作) 此处应该是说,相信对很多重要工作来说是一个必要条件。B选项for(对...来说)相符语义,故为正确谜底;A选项from(来自于),C选项like(像...),D选项on(对付)语义不恰当,故排除。

  2、【谜底】[C] faith

  【解析】此处稽核词义辨析和中央同等性原则。第一段首句提出主题句:trust is a tricky business (相信是一个奇怪的东西)。后面进一步对该主题句停止解释说明:On the one hand, it’s a necessary condition ___ for ___ many worthwhile things: child care, friendships, etc. (一方面,相信对很多重要工作来说是必要条件,比如照看孩子,友谊等),这句话在说相信的好处。On the other hand, putting your ___ in the wrong place often carries a high ____. (另外一方面,把...放在错误的地方往往会带来弘大...),显然这句话依旧在解释主题词“trust”,只要C选项faith(相信、虔诚)与trust属于近义词复现,故正确谜底为[C] faith。

  3、【谜底】[B] price

  【解析看舜舜义辨析。第一段首句提出主题句:trust is a tricky business(相信是一个奇怪的东西)。后面进一步对该主题句停止解释说明:On the one hand, it’s a necessary condition __ for __ many worthwhile things: child care, friendships, etc. (一方面,相信对很多重要工作来说是必要条件,比如照看孩子,友谊等),这句话在说相信的好处。On the other hand, putting your ___ in the wrong place often carries a high____. (另外一方面,把...放在错误的地方往往会带来弘大...),显然这句话依旧在解释主题词“trust”,而且根据空格地点句中的关键词“wrong place”,本句应该在说相信不当的弊端,所以空格处应该填入一个负向感情色彩的词,故A选项benefit和D选项hope排除,而C选项debt(债务)带入之后语义不当,故正确谜底为[B] price(价值)。

  4、【谜底】[D] Then

  【解析】此处稽核逻辑相干。上段讲述的是相信的好处和相信不当的弊端。第二段段首提出成就:“_____咱咱咱们为什么要相信”。只要D选项then(那么)填入后能构成顺畅的语义和逻辑相干。故正确谜底为D then(那么)。A选项again(再次)表示夸大;B选项instead(但是、然而)表示转折;C选项therefore(因此)表示结果,不相符请求,故排除。

  5、【谜底】[A] When

  【解析】此处稽核逻辑相干。空格地点句含义为:______人咱咱们相信一小我或一个构造机构,他咱咱们的大脑会释放催产素。只要A选项when(当..时候)填入后相符逻辑请求,故正确谜底为A选项when。其余三个选项B选项unless(如果不)表条件,C选项although(尽管)表让步,D选项until(直到...)表光阴,带入后均语义不通顺,故排除。

  6、【谜底】[C] produce

  【解析】此处稽核动宾搭配成就。上文指出:When people place their trust in an …their brains release oxytocin, a hormone.上文指出当人咱咱们发生相信感,大脑就会发生一种荷尔蒙,后面是定语从句,句内的动宾搭配, 可推知这个荷尔蒙能发生令人愉悦的情绪, 而且与后面的trigger同义复现,因此C .produce 正确。

  7、【谜底】[A] connect

  【解析】此处稽核高低文信息照应题。衔慕驳这种荷尔蒙可以或许或许引发一种群居本能,the herding instinct that leads sheep to flock together for safety and promote …with one another,这种本能有两个感化,并用and 衔接,所以复现同义and 前面的flock together. 因此抉择A. connect

  8、【谜底】[B] to

  【解析】此处稽核高低语境下的名词介词搭配成就。根据上文的结论,下文试验睁开阐发,Swiss scientists have found that exposure to this hormone puts us….所以研究中请求受试者要先处于这种环境中,所以名词exposure to 构成搭配语义相干,表示“接触”的意思,因此抉择to。

  9、【谜底】[D] mood

  【解析】此处稽核高低文的信息对应和句内信息对应。上文提到身体会发生荷尔蒙,会给你带来一种愉悦的情绪pleasurable feelings,这个上文结论。试验中exposure to this hormone puts us in a trusting …,因此,根据高低文,试验中,处于这种荷尔蒙环境中,会给人带来情绪;语气;心境;。因此抉择 mood。

  10、【谜底】[A] counterparts

  【解析】此处考核高低文的信息对应和句内信息对应。上文指出,In a study, researchers sprayed oxytocin into the noses of half the subjects ,可推知本句再讲与另外一组受试者比较。故抉择A。counterparts. 相对物,相对应的人。

  11、【谜底】[C] Lucky

  【解析】此处考核高低文的逻辑相干。因为这个句子傍边有个词also,说明前文和后文情感是同等的相干。说咱咱咱们有这两种天赋,对大家此刀是好事,所以必要抉择一个正向的情感色彩。只能抉择lucky。A选项odd 奇怪的是,B选项funny 有趣的是,D选项ironic 讽刺的是,皆不相符文意。

  12、【谜底】[A] protect

  【解析】此处稽核高低文的成分搭配。因为这个句子傍边有个词also,说明前文和后文情感是并列平行相干,前后情感应该同等。所以此处只能抉择protect 掩护咱咱咱们,相符文意。B选项delight 使高兴; C 选项 surprise 使震惊;D选项monitor 监控皆不相符文意。

  13、【谜底】[D] between

  【解析】此处稽核固定搭配。differentiate between A and B. 介词between表示在A和B之间 , 原文含义为:“4个月大的孩子可以或许或许区分出一个可信的人和一个不诚笃的人”。

  14、【谜底】[C] introduced

  【解析】此处稽核成分搭配。原文表达: Sixty toddlers were each______ to an adult tester holding a plastic container. 只要C选项be introduced to sth表示“初次认识某事物”,相符文意。A 选项added 添加;B选项transferred转移;D选项 entrusted 拜托,皆不相符文意。

  15、【谜底】[B] inside

  【解析】此处稽核介词搭配及词义复现。原文表达:“What’s in here?” before looking into the container…… Each subject was then invited to _________. 只要抉择B选项inside 能力和前文所表达的in here和looking into一脉相承。

  16、【谜底】[D] discovered

  【解析】此处稽核词义复现,属于句子内部的显性线索。根据原文Half of them found a toy; the other half 16 the container was empty… 这是用分号并列的连个句子,都是在讲试验的结果句型布局基本同等,前半句再讲一半的受测者在盒子里面找到了玩具,后半句确定是再说另半会怎么样,两个小分句的布局基本同等Half of them = the other half,found=16,a toy= the container was empty,所以16题填入的应该是found的同义词,发现的含义,故D为正确选项。

  17、【谜底】[A] fooled

  【解析】此处句间逻辑相干,属于句子内部的显性线索。—and realized the tester had 17 them,此句位于破折号后面,是对前面意思的解释得。前面提到另外一半人发现盒子是空的,而且意识到测试者对他咱咱们怎么样,既然盒子是空的那么确定认识到测试者是在戏弄他咱咱们,所以作对此题必必要懂得tester测试者是主语,宾语是them指的是受测者,主语的意思决定了谓语动词的含义为戏弄,故A fooled为正确选项。

  18、【谜底】[B] willing

  【解析】 此处稽核搭配相干,属于句子内部的显性线索。Among the children who had not been tricked, the majority were 18 to cooperate with the tester in learning a new skill, demonstrating that they trusted his leadership. 根据句子布局咱咱咱们可以或许看出逗号之前是一个介词短语意为在统统没有被戏弄过的孩子里面,大多数的孩子在习得一种新技能的时候与测试者的合作是怎么样的,demonstrating that they trusted his leadership表明这些孩子相信他的引导,所以既然相信他咱咱们便是乐意与其合作,故抉择B. willing,与were willing to 构成固定搭配,意为乐意。

  19、【谜底】[D] In contrast

  【解析】此处稽核句间的逻辑相干。19, only five of the 30 children paired with the “20” tester participated in a follow-up activity. 颠末过程该句中的only仅仅,可以或许或许看出与上文的 the majority of 构上明的对比,19题应该填入的应该是表示转折,与上文构成对比的逻辑相干词。阐发四个选项A表示总结,B表示结果,C表示举例子,只要D表示转折,对比,故D为正确选项。

  20、【谜底】[C] unreliable

  【解析】此处稽核词义辨析。19, only five of the 30 children paired with the “20” tester participated in a follow-up activity.该句含义为:在接下来的运动中30个孩子中只要5个孩子与。。。样的测试者能合作,所以结合上文提到的大部分孩子相信测试者,但是5/30属于一小部分,大部分对应的是相信,那么小比例的对应的是不相信,所以 tester的修饰词应该为C,unreliable不行靠的,不行相信的,故C为正确选项。

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Text 1

  21、【谜底】D Middle-class workers

  【解析】根据题干中“threatned”和“automation”定位到第一段首句“the annoyi-ng challenge facing the middle class is one that...for their jobs”中的challenge和第二段的末了三句话,可以或许或许得知相对付低支出者和富人,中产阶级遭到的冲击最大。

  22、【谜底】C Issues arising from automation need to be tackled

  【解析】根据题干可定位到第三段中的首句“this isn’t to be alarmist”和末句“But ... middle-class workers may need a lot of help adjusting”,but转折句再一次夸大了作者的概念,即中产阶级工人必要很多帮助来调剂应对成就。同时,末句中”may need a lot of help”同义替换成选项C中的“need to be tackled”,主动化带来的成就必要被解决,得出C谜底。

  23、【谜底】A creative potential

  【解析】根据题干中的关键词可定位到第四段第二句“Curriculums—from grammar school to college—should evolve to focus less on memorizing facts and more on creativity and complex communication”。由该句可知,课程应该更存眷创造性和复杂的相同而非记忆事实。所以,应该选C选项creative potential(创造潜能),同义替换为creativity。

  24、【谜底】D preventing the income gap from widening

  【解析】该题考查作者的概念,根据题干中的关键词可定位到第六段第一句“Finally, because automation threatens to widen the gap between capital income and labor income, taxes and the safety net will have to be rethought”。由该句可知,因为主动化加大了本钱支出和劳能源支出的差距,所以应该从新考虑税收和平安网(包管措施),即税收政策应该防止支出差距扩大,选D选项preventing the income gap from widening。

  25、【谜底】B possible solutions to it

  【解析】作者在文章第一、二段提出成就“中产阶级受主动化危害最大”之后,第三段的末尾句提出中产阶级必要帮助去顺应主动化的睁开,接下来第四段至第六段介绍解决办法,末了一段表明作者概念。所以应该选B 选项possible solutions to it(解决成就的相应办法)。

  Text 2

  26、【谜底】[D] social media as a reliable source of news

  【解析】双段推理题。根据题目定位到第1段和第2段,双段推理优先考虑双段主旨。第一段中央句为末了一句话:Millennials prefer news from the White House to be filtered through other sources, not a president’s social media platform。“千禧一代喜欢白宫间接发布的消息…而不是总统社交媒体发布的信息”,说明他咱咱们不太相信社交媒体。第2段中央为第二句转折之后,说明对付社交媒体的不相信上升。故双段中央都和他咱咱们不相信社交媒体相干。结合以上信息,得出社交媒体信息不行靠,抉择D。

  27、【谜底】[A] sharpen

  【解析】词汇释义题。根据题目定位到第2段第2句:Yet as distrust has risen toward all media,people may be starting to beef up their media literacy skills。句子的情感色彩判断,因为逗号条件到“人咱咱们对付统统媒体的不相信增长”,可以或许或许推知人咱咱们应该开端增强其媒体素养的技能,故选A。

  28. 【谜底】B verify news by referring to diverse sources.

  【解析】范例证明题。根据题干定位至第三段第二句话。因为某项研究一样平常是论据证明前面的论点,故谜底应该位于第一句话“Young people who are digital natives are indeed becoming more skillful at seperating fact from fiction in cyberspace.” 说明谜底应该“和年青人更容易把网络中的事实和虚假信息区分开来”,故谜底为B“验证新闻的真伪”。为了精确可以或许或许在论据中去验证,论据中提到“verify stories”, “cross check sources”和“prefer news from different perspectives”,都是和多重角度验证信息真伪相干的。

  29. 【谜底】C readers’ misinterpretation

  【解析】事实细节题。根据题干定位至第五段第三句found之后a main reason对应the top reason,而原文剩余信息为“reader error”, 所以应该和读者相干。Error应该对应misinterpretation, 故谜底为C readers’ misinterpretation。若本句不清楚,下句进一步说明谜底的内容,文中misintepretation or exerggeration of actual news进一步印证C为正确谜底。

  30. 【谜底】A A Rise in Critical Skills for Sharing News Online

  【解析】全文主旨题。本篇文章属于篇首转折,二段转折之后为全文主旨,yet之后说道:“Yet as distrust has risen toward all media, people may be strarting to beef up their media literacy skills”.“跟着对付统统媒体不相信的上升,人咱咱们开端增强其媒体素养的技能”,故谜底为A。为了验证,可以或许或许看篇末,篇末重申主题,so之后讲道“so when young people are critical of an over-tweeting president, they reaveal a mental discipline in thinking skills-and in their choices on when to share on social media.” 更进一步说明和人咱咱们批判性看待社交媒体上的新闻相干。

  Text 3

  31、【谜底】[B] It failed to pay due attention to patients’ rights.

  【解析】细节题。根据题干中的NHS, DeepMind和agreement回文定位第一段第四句“It is against that background that the information commissioner, has issued her damning verdict against the Royal Free hospital trust under the NHS, which handed over to DeepMind the records of 1.6 million patients in 2015 on the basis of a vague agreement which took far too little account of the patients’ rights and their expectations of privacy”。根据a vague agreement which took far too little account of the patients’ rights and their expectations of privacy这一部分的语义信息,说明NHS与DeepMind之间的协定没有充足考虑到病人的权利与隐私。这句话的言外之意便是协定未能充足存眷病人的权利。故确定谜底为选项B,此中failed to是took far too little account的同义改写。

  32、【谜底】[C] necessary adjustments.

  【解析】细节题。根据题干中的NHS trust, 和Denham’s verdict回文定位第二段第二句“The NHS trust has mended its ways.” 根据第二句的语义信息,NHS trust针对Denham’s verdict已经调剂了其与DeepMind的协定内容,故颠末过程同义替换,可确定正确谜底为C。

  33、【谜底】[D] the value of data comes from the processing of it.

  【解析】推理题。根据题干,此题定位在第二段末了一句but之后的转折句。“But this distinction misses the point that it is processing and aggregation, not the mere possession of bits, that gives data value”. 这种区分忽视了一个点:是处理和收集付与数据意义,而不是拥有数据。 选项中的 “processing”和原文中的“processing”原词复现。 选项中的“the value of data”对应原文中的“data value”。因此,D项为正确谜底。

  34、【谜底】[D] the monopoly of big data by tech giants.

  【解析】细节题。根据题干此题定位在文中末了一段的第四句。“What matters is that they will belong to a private monopoly which developed them using public resources.”重要的是这些提高属于一个私家把持企业,而私家把持企来应用公共资源停止研发。而这正真正的担忧地点。因此,选项D为正确谜底, the monopoly of big data by tech giants对应原文中的a private monopoly。

  35、【谜底】[B] cautious

  【解析】立场题。本题考查作者对本文主题“将人工智能应用于医疗健康”的立场。根据顺序性原则定位在末了一段。该段倒数第三句话指出“咱咱咱们目前依然处于这一改革的后期,而且任何小的抉择都邑对未来发生深远的影响”,此中“still”一词,和“small”(小)和“gigantic”(弘大的)对比,都表现出了作者看待全体事件是小心谨严的立场,因此[B] cautious为正确谜底。

  Text 4

  36、【谜底】[B] its rigid management

  【解析】根据题干判断本题考查因果细节。第一段的前三句都是无关USPS的详细数字,属于细节信息。第四句出现many reasons很多原因。紧接着下面就有fundamentally基本原因是, 所以定位在第一段的末了一句。然后阐发这个长难句,USPS 处在squeeze between 1 and 2,中,1是technological change, 2是structure. 2的structure后定语从句:denies management flexibility 对应选项B: rigid management。

  【干扰项阐发】:选项A,budget文中未有触及。 选项C,虽然有提到technological ,原文technological change 后的定语从句说的是:技术改革低落必要,并没有提到cost本钱成就。选项D,the withdrawal of bank support 银行支撑撤销了,原文并没有提及银行支撑,间接排除。

  37、【谜底】[A] the interference from interest groups

  【解析】 根据题干due to,判断本题考查因果细节。根据题干关键词:USPS fails to modernize 定位到原文第二段末了一句,在这句前leaving,留下,导致这个结果,往前找原因,前一句提到reform legislation, 而且这句前另有this is why,只要找到代词this指代就可以或许或许判断选项。代词往前推,根据这句主干interest groups exerts pressure on Congress抉择选项A,interference 对应 exert pressure on。

  【干扰项阐发】选项B,the inadequate funding from Congress,原文虽然有提到Congress国会,the aspect of status quo get protected, 国会掩护USPS,并没有提及inadequate funding基金不敷。选项C,the shrinking demand for postal service 邮政需要缩减,文中没有提及。选项D, the incompetence of postal unions 邮政工会的不作为。文章有提到工会,但是只提他咱咱们是属于Interest groups,并没有提到无作为。

  38、【谜底】[A] removing its burden of retiree health care

  【解析】 因果细节题。根据38题题干The long-standing complaint by the ....回文定位到第3段,末了一句:“ The latter step would largely offset the financial burden of annually pre-funding retiree health care, thus....” .再根据题干中“ can be addressed by” 即:颠末过程哪种办法解决,此处为解题要点,颠末过程哪种办法来解决,前后显著为结果与途径的相干,即可懂得为因果相干。文章此句后半句恰是题干,thus前半句为谜底The latter step would largely offset the financial burden of annually pre-funding retiree health care。与 A. B . C .D 四个选项匹配后,正确谜底为 A removing its burden of retiree health care。

  39、【谜底】[C] discontent

  【解析】根据题干可以或许或许判断本题为概念立场题。回文定位到末了一段。题干“the author seems to view legislators with”, 详细定位到末了一段倒数第2句:“ The emerging.....is a sign that legislators are getting frightened.......” 再根据题干,问作者最终立。段末了一句,转折句是作者最终的立。“ It is not, however, a sign that they’re getting serious about....” , 即作者认为他咱咱们并没有认真看待。所以此处作者立场为否定。匹配A B C D 四个选项 只要C discontent( 不满)为负向信息,所以为正确谜底。

  40、【谜底】[D] The Postal Service Needs more than a Band-Aid

  【解析】根据题干特征词“best title”,这是一道主旨题。根据前四道题问的主题,第一道题和第二道题是USPS出现了成就,并阐发原因,第三道题给出解决办法,第四道题提到作者对付这个办法的立场,即提出成就—阐发成就—解决成就,并在末了给出作者对这个解决计划的评估。根据这个文章框架,首先A选项“USPS开端错过了它的好时光”,这只是提出成就,相对片面;B选项“USPS:不要动我的奶酪”, 这是拒绝解决成就的立场,不相符文章的写作思绪;C选项“USPS:慢性病必要快办法”,这个chronic和quick都没有在文中提到;D选项“USPS必要的不只仅是权宜之计”,这说的其实作者对付解决计划的评估,在文章末了一段。这文了结尾有But,有however, “it[指代前文讲的办法] is not a sign……”,对此作者表示否定立。所以D选项为正确谜底。

  Part B

  41、【谜底】 [E] The Eisenhower Executive Office Building(EEOB) commands a…

  【解析】 E段首先介绍EEOB的全称,对全文停止概述提出话题,可选为41题谜底。同时,从给定选项C第一句提到the State, War,and Navy Building…,the在此特指,可以或许或许作为另外一一个线索,在E选项中末了一句,复现了the State, War,and Navy Building...。故41题谜底选E。

  42、【谜底】[G] The history of the EEOB began long before its…

  【解析】C选项末了一句谈到了many historic events(修建内呈现了历史事件),而G选项第一句提到了the history of the EEOB…(EEOB的历史...),意思同等,承上启下,故42题谜底选G。

  43、【谜底】[A] In December of 1869, Congress appointed…

  【解析】确定G后,根据G选项末了一句,...the demolition of the State Department Building(谈到撤除the State Department Building), 而A选项中谈到了select a site and prepare plans and cost estimates for a new State Department,树立一个新的State Department Building,前后意思顺接,故43题谜底选A。

  44、【谜底】[B] Completed in 1875, the State Department’s south wing…

  【解析】 根据给定的F段,首句是段落大意,该句提到了...as the building slowly rose wing by wing(该修建逐翼睁开). 而B选项第一句谈到了...south wing was the first to be occupied(首先坐落在南翼),然后在B选项末了一句又谈到...moved into the east wing(之后又移至东翼). 先在F段总起,再在B段中分说,前后对应,故44题谜底选B.

  45、【谜底】[D] Many of the most celebrated national figures…

  【解析】 B段结尾处谈到了where elaborate wall…decorated the office of the Secretary(这些精美的墙....装潢了秘书处的办公室),而D段第一句提到了...that have taken place within the EEOB’s granite walls(历史事件在这些EEOB的墙上呈现), the wall原词复现,两句话意思同等,故45题谜底选D。

  Section III Translation

  (46) By the date of his birth Europe was witnessing the passing of the religious drama, and the creation of new forms under the incentive of classical tragedy and comedy.

  【题目考点】代词还原;并列布局

  【句子布局】and并列两个句子,主干分离为:…Europe was witnessing the passing … and the creation of …;of the religious drama为定语修饰the passing;under the incentive of classical tragedy and comedy为状语

  【重点词汇】witness 见证 religious宗教的 drama戏剧 incentive刺激

  【参考译文】莎士比亚出身之时,欧洲宗教戏剧正在消逝,在古典悲剧和戏剧的推动下,很多新的戏剧情势应运而生。

  (47) no boy who went to a grammar school could be ignorant that the drama was a form of literature which gave glory to Greece and Rome and might yet bring honor to England.

  【题目考点】定语从句;宾语从句;并列布局

  【句子布局】主句主干:no boy… could be ignorant that…。who引导的定语从句修饰boy, that引导为形容词ignorant的宾语从句,which引导的定语从句修饰a form of literature, gave…and might bring honor…为先行词a form of literature的并列谓语布局。

  【重点词汇】grammar school 文法黉舍 ignorant忽视 literature文学 glory 荣耀

  【参考译文】任何文法黉舍的门生都知道戏剧是一种文学情势,它曾给希腊和罗马带来荣耀,也许同样会给英格兰带来殊荣。

  (48) But the professional companies prospered in their permanent theaters, and university men with literary ambitions were quick to turn to these theaters as offering a means of livelihood.

  【题目考点】并列句

  【句子布局】并列句主干分离为:…companies prospered … and university men …were quick to…

  【重点词汇】professional 专业的 prosper繁华 permanent theater永久性剧场

  【参考译文】但是专业公司的永久性剧场却兴旺起来,于是高校一些有着文学抱负的人敏捷捉住机遇,将其作为一个谋生手腕。

  (49) A native literary drama had been created, its alliance with the public playhouses established, and at least some of its great traditions had been begun.

  【题目考点】伴随状语,并列布局,被动语态

  【句子布局】本句是一个由and衔接的并列句。and前的句子主干为一个被动语态的简略句:a … drama had been created, with引导一个伴随状语;and后的句子也为一个被动语态的简略句:some of its great traditions had been begun。

  【重点词汇】alliance作为名词意为“同盟,结合;联姻”,常与介词with停止搭配应用。establish作为动词意为“树立,开办”,也可引申为“降生”。at least为固定搭配,表示“至少”。tradition作为名词表示“传统,常规”。

  【参考译文】一种外乡文学戏剧情势降生了,它与公共剧场结成同盟,至少它的一些优越传统开端登上历史舞台了。

  (50) To realize how great was the dramatic activity, we must remember further that hosts of plays have been lost, and that probably there is no author of note whose entire work has survived.

  【题目考点】非谓语,宾语从句,定语从句

  【句子布局】本句布局较为复杂,主句部分为“we must remember…”,主句之前的非谓语to realize作为偏向状语,后接了一个how引导的宾语从句。主句中,两个that分离引导了两个remember的宾语从句,此中第二个宾语从句中,有一个whose引导的定语从句,修饰author of note。

  【重点词汇】realize作为动词表示“实现,了解,认识到”。dramatic为drama的形容词情势,意思为“戏剧的,引人注偏向,激动人心的”。survive作为动词表示“幸存,活下来;比…活得长”。hosts of表示“大批的”。

  【参考译文】为了了解戏剧性运动有何等巨大,咱咱咱们必需切记大批的戏剧已经被遗忘了,而且有可能没有一名驰名作家的统统作品都保留了下来。

  Section IV Writing

  51.【参考范文】

  Dear professors,

  I, on behalf of the Students’ Union, am writing this letter to invite all of you to attend the graduation ceremony.

  The ceremony will be held in the Sports Hall of our university on this Friday morning, from 9 a.m. to 11 a.m. The details about the ceremony are as follows. First and foremost, the president will make a speech for the graduates, blessing them to have a bright future. In addition, several experts will be invited to issuing certificates to all the graduates.

  It would be a great honor for us to have the accompany of all of you in the graduation ceremony. Therefore, we all hope that you can spare your time to attend it and we are looking forward to your reply to tell us whether you can attend it or not on that day.

  Your sincerely,

  Li Ming

  52.【参考范文】

  Exhibited in the cartoon is a sarcastic scene that sitting before a computer, a college student is choosing his optional class, wondering and pondering whether he should choose an easier course or a tougher but creative course. Simple as the picture is, the symbolic meaning it conveys is profound and thought-provoking.

  It is beyond doubt that the painter aims to tell us that everyone, especially college students, should have the spirit of creation and innovation. To put it another way, innovation is an essential and indispensable role for anyone who wants to succeed. This can be directly attributed to the fact that one may be caught in dilemma, at least once in life. Such a dilemma may coincidentally be most difficult period in his life. Then there are two choices before him: making a creative choice or an easier one. If he chooses the former and tries to break through the barrier, difficult as it will be, success will be the result one day. However, although it seems to be much easier for him at the moment, the latter choice may kill off his dream and ambition, and such choice then will be a pity all his life.

  As college student, definitely, we are facing or will face many difficulties. At such moment, we should bear in mind that creation is a necessary and indispensable quality in our life, a positive attitude to life and an approach to success. Keep the spirit of innovation, and we will win a better life.

结束

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